The Japanese space probe Kaguya detected Uranium on the surface of the moon. This has the potential to make long term lunar colonies much more feasible as energy could be extracted from the moon instead of needing deliveries from earth. It also creates the potential of harvesting the moon for energy consumption on earth.
Advancements in energy generation via solar power could diminish the significance of this discovery. Still, this is discovery is important and may end up providing a rough map of the first human colonies on the moon (meaning they will be near the large uranium deposits).
"Uranium could one day be mined on the Moon after a Japanese spacecraft discovered the element on its surface.
The space probe Kaguya detected the radioactive element in samples of the Moon's surface with a gamma-ray spectrometer, along with thorium, potassium, magnesium, silicon, calcium, titanium and iron.
The discovery opens up the possibility of mining operations on a commercial basis or even nuclear power plants being constructed on the Moon."