The vote was meant to show how little support Obama's plan had with his own party; it was never going to pass with Republicans unanimously against it.
"The House on Tuesday overwhelmingly rejected a measure to increase the government’s debt limit, acting on a vote staged by Republican leaders to pressure President Obama to agree to deep spending cuts.
Republicans brought up the measure, which was defeated 318 to 97, to show the lack of support in the House for raising the $14.3 trillion debt ceiling without concrete steps to rein in chronic budget deficits.
Voting against the measure were 236 Republicans and 82 Democrats. No Republicans voted in favor."